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The bowl is similar to an Oswald type 23 (Oswald, 1975, 37), which typically dates from c. The clay tobacco pipe has been moulded from a white pipeclay. The casting seem runs down the underside of the pipe and stem and is clearly visible.

At the base of the bowl is a rounded spur, on this are stamped the makers initials T W, surrounded by a raised circular border. The pipe is a white grey colour, and measures 51.6mm in length, 8.9mm in width, 38.4mm in height, and 10.11g in weight.

When using bowl typologies, we also acknowledge Nol Humes caveat (194) that we suspect remains as valid today as it was 45 years ago: There is, unfortunately, a great deal that we do not yet know about the so-called evolution of bowls and stems, and there is reason to suspect that present stylistic and dating criteria have been oversimplified. For example: Atkinson, David and Adrian Oswald 1980 The Dating and Typology of Clay Pipes Bearing the Royal Arms.

Tobacco pipe makers marks appear in a variety of locations on the bowl including on the back, front, and sides, on the base, and on the sides of the spur or heel. Marks were produced by molds that left incuse (negative) or relief (raised) impressions (Oswald 19-91).

There is little doubt that the earliest pipes came from England.

The Spanish had observed the Indians off Florida’s coastline smoking cigar-like rolled tobacco leaves in 1493 and had eventually adapted that form of smoking for themselves.

Such a common and fragile artefact has become an important dating aid for archaeologists working on sites from the late 16th to 19th centuries.

Around the circumference of the bowl is a repeating pattern comprising a narrow vertical rib followed by a broad rib… The clay tobacco pipe has been moulded from a white pipeclay. A line of rouletting is present close to the rim of the bowl. The clay tobacco pipe has been moulded from a white pipeclay.The pipe fragment consists of the bowl and spur and incomplete stem.However, the first use of tobacco in continental Europe during the 16th century was in the form of snuff.Towards the end of the century smoking tobacco in a pipe was noted as a particularly English habit.

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